Today dynamic development of tourism was characterized as an industry sector for many countries. Tourism has become a mass movement of many people. This trend has not bypassed in Russia. The fact that tourism is a phenomenon of our time is followed from the reality that tourism became:
- An active participant in social and economic development;
- Element of the needs of a modern man and his family;
- The most common means of understanding other cultures, ethnic groups, establishing close contacts with people of different nationalities;
- A dynamic industry sector with a constant upward trend in terms of supply and demand;
- the source of environment for many sectors of the economy regions and localities;
-a firm part of state policy and international cooperation.
Tourism at Lake Baikal - is a very, very promising phenomenon. This is indicated by many facts. If you raise the issue of international image, it's worth remembering that in 2010 the lake was included in Top - 10 places, recommended to visit on the planet according to the publishing house loneli planets, which produces the world famous eponymous guidebook, which is used by most independent tourists travelling around the world. In addition to Lake Baikal in the rating Loneli planet's most attractive places in the world entered the French Alsace, Bali (Indonesia), the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil), the valley of Ko - Kong in Cambodia, the city of Oaxaca in Mexico, South Africa, a national park in Britain and South-Eastern Australia.
In recent years, attention to tourism on the Baikal has increased in the Russian scale. The increase in tourists’ arrival from abroad and changing patterns of demand of Russian consumers has prompted a more serious attention to this issue, both by public and commercial and private structures. It was gratifying to the region that in 2006, Buryatia and Irkutsk region were among the seven regions, which will create a special economic zone (SEZ) of tourist - recreational type. It was determined on the basis of the competition by the Government of Russia. Also the winners were Krasnodar, Altai, Stavropol Krai, Altai Republic and the Kaliningrad Region. Their projects have been admitted as the most interesting and conceptually well developed, aimed at the comprehensive development of the tourist-recreational potential of selected areas of the Russian Federation. Analysis of the development projects of tourist’s zones allows carrying out some of their specialization: in the Irkutsk region mainly business tourism will develop. At the Baikal Economic Forum in 2006 Guide Association "Baikal Visa" has even showed a project of construction of the new city on the shores of Lake Baikal “the Baikal-City”. The last one was to be built on the territory of Listvyanka to Bolshie Koty. There should appear, except the hotels, a conference center, business center, shopping center, and a residence for the political heads of state, party and public officials in the city. The idea was raised that there should be the residence in the Baikal city, where the President of Russia could take the heads of governments of the Asia - Pacific region. Listvyanka and its surroundings were to be the Siberian “New Vasyuki”.
The requests of neighbors are rather modest: it is planned to develop ski and eco-tourism in the republic of Buryatia, and for that, unlike Irkutsk, it was made the significant steps. But in practical terms, it is important that the proposed tourist zone of the Irkutsk Region and Buryatia are in close proximity to each other and from the formal ones require interaction on the organization and functioning of the arrangement of the SEZ. Combining the region's potential will not only greatly increase the overall effect of tourist - recreational activities within a unified concept for the development of capacity of Lake Baikal, but also contribute to a comprehensive solution of ecological problem of preserving the unique lake.
The idea that it is the Baikal can and should become a special economic zone to encourage tourism and recreation, though by slow steps, but still is embedded in people's minds. It starts to be felt across the country. In May 2007 representatives of the then existing Russian Agency for Management of SEZ (RusSEZ), after visiting several sites, selected for tourist resorts in the Irkutsk Region and Buryatia, offered to prepare other sites for location of zones. This step is dictated by care about the Lake and, most likely, by the fact that local zones cannot solve all the problems of local residents, if in other areas of the Baikal region is not practiced mass tourism (of course with significant environmental restrictions). There are a couple of reasons of it.
First, there are social and economic reasons. According to the law - "On the protection of Lake Baikal” in the borders of the Baikal natural territory of any economic activity will be regulated. According to the preliminary estimates of experts, as a result of the restrictions of economic activities and natural resource, the losses of the budget of the Irkutsk region will amount to about two billion rubles, the same will lose the budget of Buryatia. The main problem remains in the preservation of living standards: more than a hundred settlements on the shores of Lake Baikal today are inhabited by 140 thousand people who may lose their main source ¬ source of income, if the usual activities for local residents will be banned. People, who have to change the permanent place of work, must find the possible forms of employment and give at least some compensation. Even if it is not about the dozens and hundreds vacancies in each district, but only on the units – it should not be ignored. In Siberia, in general, and in particular, in Baikal area it is unnecessary to take the example of countries and regions where tourism is really feeding the majority of people, but not to do next, still small steps in this direction are also irrational.
Sometimes it has been suggested that the development of the tourism industry in other areas of the Baikal region is only possible by the attraction of foreign capital for the construction of modern hotels and camping sites for tourists. In our view, it is illusory hopes at this stage. Even if investors from abroad finance the construction of one or two tourist complexes, the residents of some isolated places would be involved in their construction and maintenance, but for an average standard of the citizens has practically very little impact. In social terms, above all tourism for consumers is needed, so that it catered to residents of not only the SEZ, but as many towns and villages of Lake Baikal Podlemorye. "Disasters" of a modern village - alcoholism, unemployment and incivility can be successfully overcome only if there are socially and personally meaningful activities, which may be a tourist service.
Secondly, the authorities of the Irkutsk Region and Buryatia today hardly have enough money to protect the environment and natural resources, local governments also sorely lacking of money. Therefore, only a massive eco-tourism would increase funds for environmental protection and, more importantly, teach to take good care of nature and ecology of Lake Baikal. In one of the definitions of ecotourism is said that this tourist activities in nature brings gains for the preservation of this natural environment, as well as improves the living standards of local populations. In the current socio-economic, moral and legal uncertainties about the idea of love for nature and its protection of the length of many could remain just slogans, giving way to pragmatic and lack of spirituality on the principle of "no fat to be would live." And the more people see the reality that saving nature, caring for her at the same time strengthens the interest in it from tourists, and thus brings some income to local residents, the sooner will come the practical impact on the environment.
Without denying the importance, necessity of construction and development of hotels and tourist facilities for customer service and employment of local people in specific locations, nevertheless I would like to emphasize the relevance of tourists and the social value of "British" forms "Bed and Breakfast (B & B), which about we have already spoken. This is convinced, when you come to any resort in the Baikal region and see a significant number of people wishing to surrender their apartment or house "for visitors" to the general, low price of accommodation. This trend is evident in a number of Baikal villages. In a study that we performed in 2007 by a grant from the Russian Humanitarian Foundation, Pribaikalsky residents were asked: "Do you want and can you implement such a service as tourist accommodation in the same house with the owners or family hotels? The answers surveyed from 6 localities of the Irkutsk region (Listvyanka Slyudyanka, Kultuk, Upper Taltsy B. Goloustnoye and Elantsy) and eight villages Kabansky region of Buryatia (including Kabansk, Oymur, B-Kudara, Suhaya, etc.) divided into the following variants:
1. Yes, there is a desire and opportunity - 15,7%
2. Yes, there is a desire, but there are no opportunities - 30,1%
3. No - 26.5%
4. It is difficult to answer and no answer - 27,7%
Comments on the level of desirability, as they say, are unnecessary, and economic and social importance of B & B is undoubted. Of course, people understand the difficulties in "implementation" of this form of servicing, particularly with respect to foreign customers. To the question " To what extent do you consider yourself and your loved ones prepared to cooperate with foreign tourists and have appropriate knowledge and skills (languages, queries, service requirements, etc.)?" responses were as follows: a) "You could say about a good preparedness" - 7,3%, b) "Some skills are, but a lot to learn" - 59,4%, c) "Such willingness is not entirely " - 26,3%, r ) "I think that this knowledge and these skills are not needed for" ordinary people" - 5,3%. The above data speak for themselves, and here it is worth recalling the view of V. Putin that was made at the meeting following its descent to the bottom of Lake Baikal in the "World-1 in early August 2009. It was about realigning BPPM and turning Baikalsk into one of the SEZ. Prime Minister said that with all respect to the employees of BPPM, none of them will not be able to work in tourist facilities in case of creation in Baikalsk special economic zone of tourist-recreational type. Until now, even for work in hotels in the two capitals there is a need to invite experts from abroad. Putin’s position confirms the thought of one of the major complexity in the organization of large hotels in the SEZ. But it (the position) is difficult to be directly transferred to the "local" hotels, where the evaluation criteria are somewhat different as they relate to the reception of tourists by the porous type “Bed & Breakfast”.
A third reason for the importance of "dispersal" of tourism for the whole population of the Baikal region is its undoubted influence on the revival of traditional forms of farming and living, on the improving of the moral and cultural standards of rural residents. Primarily, the point is that any visitor is interested not only in our rich and diverse nature: Lake Baikal, mountains and steppes, rivers and valleys, lakes and woodlands. Still, if not more, people who live on the edge are in the interest, their customs and traditions, their culture and customs, especially land and natural resources.
The region will attract tourists by the fact that there are indigenous peoples of Siberia - Buryat, Evenki, and Yakut, and Tofalars and Soyots, old-timers in Siberia - Russian with their unique ethnic identity: the Old Believers (Semeiskie) and the Cossacks, grown up in recent diaspora Tatars, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Jews, and the Caucasian peoples, etc. And, unlike some other regions, peoples of Siberia for centuries have evenness relationship with each other, mutual understanding, mutual assistance and mutual support, respect for other religious views and beliefs, tolerance in the attitude of man to man. Indisputable features of the image of the Eastern Siberia - the beauty of the taiga and the lake, the vast expanses of steppe areas and river valleys, mountain peaks, Sayan, Baikal and Barguzin ranges - all is complemented by today's image of land of stable international relations, the image of hospitality of different ethnic groups.
To maintain such an opinion it must be fully preserved and restored all individual and unique appearance of people, in the construction and architecture of cities and villages, churches, places of worship and rituals of religions - Buddhism, Shamanism, Orthodoxy, including the Old Believers, a religious and moral traditions. All that has been done recently by "a blueprint", according to the rules of his excellency "faceless stamp" and that is not consistent with the nature and aspirations of ethnic groups - all this must be seriously revised and revaluated in terms of traditional and tourist values. Houses and streets, clothing and household equipment, decoration of apartments, crafts and souvenirs, museums and monuments, Burkhan and holy places - all of which should carry a personality of the Siberian native and old-timer, a historic color features of its adaptation and accommodation on this harsh land. Tourists, especially foreign, are interested in what that has its original, unique image - it must be deeply learned, while expanding tourism industry in the Baikal region.
Any large-scale work is always embodies both positive and negative effects. We will try to separate them, bear in mind domestic and foreign tourist flows.
Thus, a positive impact on the region tourism industry:
• providing employment, reducing unemployment,
• The funds in the budget from tax tourism and related firms
• the funds for the municipalities in the area of environmental protection,
• a foreign exchange earnings from foreign tourists,
• the infrastructure development,
• the revival of historical and archaeological monuments and places,
• Restoration of traditional activities and elements of everyday life "indigenous" population,
• the preservation of important natural areas and improve environmental quality,
• opportunities for intercultural exchange,
• Enhancing effective environmental advocacy.
Negative consequences can be in the potential and actual trends. The potential may include:
• a flow of investments from the industrial and social sphere in the tourist industry,
• strengthening the "commercial" approach in regards to the historical - cultural values and nature
• loss of identity of ethnic groups because of the influence of the tourism industry,
• modification of patterns of consumption,
• a poor relationship between the "masters" and "guests" because of cultural, information and communication differences.
The real negative consequences, in turn, will surely affect the following aspects:
• Increased pollution of natural objects and the environment as a whole due to an influx of tourists, sometimes not so encumbered environmental installations, problems due to waste,
• damage to historic and archaeological sites for fans of "souvenirs" seeking something to have "in memory"
• strengthening local problems related to drugs and prostitution
• problems of psychological adjustment on the tourist trade.
In carrying out arrangements for the SEZ and parallel to the mass tourism in the Baikal region of these aspects, both positive and negative, must be borne in mind.
In one of the manuals for the organization of foreign tourism isolated slime tourism markets in terms of features and content of marketing activities:
• target, i.e. market in which the firm sells or intends to achieve its objectives;
• sterile, i.e., market, which has no prospects for the implementation of certain services;
• basic, i.e. market, where implements most services company;
• additional, i.e., market, which ensures the sale of a certain volume of services;
• increasing, i.e. market that has real opportunities for sales growth;
• prosloechny, i.e. market in which commercial operations are unstable, but under certain conditions, there are chances of turning it into an active market. However, it could become infertile market.
This typology casts a serious reflection on the peculiarities of Lake Baikal and the tourist market, more than just those of his time at which it can be really "sterile", because of the specificity of Siberian conditions, or of some other reason.
On the issue of tourism management for clients of different nationalities, it is important to emphasize the significance of its preliminary ethno-psychological study. The need for ethno-psychological analysis of the features people on the lake, connected with the practical problem of the effectiveness of hospitality. This problem also has a few aspects.
First, for a successful service it is useful to know the specific national features of the client, their specific interests and possible claims, the nature of his claims to a culture of service.
Second, it is extremely necessary by the organizers of tourist travel, guides, etc. to know the identity, national identity of all that they show, "present" to the tourists, especially those of the original subtleties of life and living of local people which are not well known, but at the same time, arouse interest and informative in nature;
Third, it is indifferent in the contacts with clients to understand norms of the ethics of international communication and hospitality with a bias to the cultural traditions of specific peoples with whom one interacts;
Finally, a kind of a "highlight" of information for the tourist group from a particular state may be information about how members of their nation were at Lake Baikal area and what contribution they have made in the local life (for example, a story about the Poles - the researchers of the sacred lake, or on their work - the exiles in the construction Krugobaikalskaya cartage tract of Japanese prisoners of war on the shores of Lake Baikal, on the concrete achievements of the representatives of certain ethnic groups, etc.).
The need for ethnic analysis of the issue of hospitality in the Baikal region is in no small degree connected with the consideration of other international business contacts. In this case we are talking not only about tourism, business, but also about the relationship between municipalities and administrations of different cities and regions of Lake Baikal with its foreign partners, on developing links between the various social organizations of different countries (for the same problem of ecology of Lake Baikal), about the interaction between mixed national families and individuals, etc. Here, for example, just one more nuance. In 2006, the territory of Trans-Baikal National Park, worked as a volunteer center, held on 3 project, was attended by 49 volunteers from different countries (UK, USA, Germany, France, Switzerland, etc.), and Russia.
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