Версия для печатиSend by emailСохранить в PDF

We, Siberians are accustomed to paint Baikal in bright and enthusiastic paint. That only cost statements and thoughts of the famous writer Vladimir Rasputin, from which emanates the talent, admiration and love. Many of them are scattered in several of his works, and often reflect the uniqueness of Lake Baikal: “The Man took aback at the sight of Lake Baikal, because it does not fit in his presentation: Baikal lay, not where something like this could be, was not so what action is usually "indifferent" nature. It was something special, unusual and exceptional."

Old residents of Lake Baikal is so accustomed to the positive image of the sacred enraptured surrounding sea, which even as I do not think that there may be some other's perception and evaluation. But many times it was completely different, if we take into account not beauty, and the overall attractiveness of the lake. At the same time ancient people met a rather unpleasant metamorphosis. In the little-known manuscript book of the XII century 'curiosities created by "Arabs called Baikal, named the Bahr al-bak, which translated means" sea, which many tears "or" Sea of Terror."It is very interesting and specifically made in this manuscript description of this "horrendous" water: "Bahr al-bak. This sea with a surprisingly clear and pleasant to the taste of water. It is located overseas Diamonds. God created it in the form of two horns, are connected together. It emerged from the underground crevices. And it is always groaning and moaning would be until the Day of Judgement. And the sea is in constant excitement and roar ".

Draw from a modern point of view of its precision, detail description, for example, "God created it in the form of two horns." After all, for that distant time was extremely difficult to establish the geographical shape of the lake. To do this, at least, the same people it was necessary to go on high ground on the south (southwest) and the northern shores of Lake Baikal, to see the similarity between its two extremities in the earthly scale "with two horns. But this is not most important for us. Shocking is the very name of the ancient people loved to have the lake - the sea of horror." Heart of the Siberian never put up with this approach.

Meanwhile, the people who gave that name and not very biased description of the glorious sea can be well understood if we assume that these were unlikely to come from indigenous peoples, but rather "alien", "travelers," "pioneers" "pioneers", for which the main objective was to describe distant lands. For these pioneers, who came from more Southern than Siberia, territories, and especially Arab descent, the harsh terrain of Siberia with their sharp-continental climate with frost and burning is unlikely to cause positive emotions even in its beauty. "Stuff" any sense of beauty but also the hardships of the path in strode shores of Baikal, the mountain is steeper climatic disadvantages, especially in fall and springtime, etc. Also in the vicinity of Lake Baikal, as now, very frequent earthquakes in the historical period, with very grave consequences. It is from these impressions of people and aliens born a "sea of horror."

If you take and analyze the legends on the Baikal, made in ancient times by indigenous inhabitants of its shores primarily Buryats and Evenks, it is unlikely to be found in them a lot of admiration for its beauty and charm, and descriptions of aesthetic nature. Aborigines, like other people who lived by the harsh edges, it was necessary just to survive and exist, and with different sentimentality was not much use. Yes, Baikal, a beautiful creation of nature, but its scenic beauty and grandeur can not be eaten and more important for people was to think about pragmatic interests. Yes, Lake Baikal - the owner, care about his wealth, fissile them with people, but it does take a lot of effort. Yes, Lake Baikal - a harsh judge, punishes lies, slander, falsehood, paid tribute to the good and honest people, but sometimes his attitude to people is unpredictable. Yes, Lake Baikal - the formidable ruler of rocks, water, and there is no moat, punishing the reckless sailors for their negligence and carelessness, but does not always understand the concerns people, driven by poverty and financial problems in the expanse of the lake. It is from here that Lake Baikal – is the white-haired old man, as an elderly father , is often threatening and angry, it would seem, does not forget at the right moment to help the man, but still harmful "old man” for whom nothing is even to throw stones to his daughter.

Unlikely, the time of development of Siberian and Far Eastern lands by the Russian people added a lot of positive ink in the overall image of Lake Baikal. After all, by and large, the Russian "pioneers of East spaces" were temporary messengers of the king too or of their own greed and ambition, whose goal was the description and the initial development of the "wild" places, least of all - admiring the beauty. Nor can it be assumed that in general, and Baikal, and particularly because that these harsh edges become important centers for all sorts of exiles and convicts people. Ended up here by accident and the fatal vicissitudes of life, different kinds of prisoners displayed an ambivalent attitude to these harsh and cruel edges and gave them the original estimate.

On the one hand, the uniqueness of naturally aroused admiration. "In eastern Siberia, and especially the Baikal - wrote Decembrist M.V. Basargin - nature is so gorgeous, so amazingly beautiful, so rich in flora and pleasing landscapes that used to involuntarily with enthusiastic surprise you stand for some time, looking on the surrounding objects and surroundings. The air is so good, and so impregnated with the aroma of fragrant herbs and flowers, that breathed them, you feel some special delight. He echoed the Decembrist Rosen: "The nature of beauty out there” and volunteer companion exiles P.E. Annenkov: "Nothing is impossible to imagine the more magnificent and splendid than Siberian wilderness." Decembrist M. Bestuzhev – the brother of M. Bestuzhev in his notes repeatedly mentions the "wild beauty", "beautiful open views," the glorious views", " diversity of species", writes about the desire to "admire the views". With admiration, he describes the beauty of night landscapes: "A charming evening! Clear skies! Stars burn bright - darkness all around. Vicinity of our camp fires burning, around which gather a variety of groups, the bright flame draw different shapes in different positions ... To close the trees are illuminated like a theatrical set designer, mixed voices, a number of lit yurt, where you can see animated pictures, and each of them bears a special mark; balmy air - all, all charming! Fascinating, even not for the prisoner, who after the prison gates, and, without doubt, the beauty of God's world "(127, s.234-235).
But enjoy the beauty of Siberia, accompanied, on the other hand, many of the Decembrists feeling his involuntary seclusion, and nature acted as a kind ally "prison". Characteristic in this respect can be called a poem about the Decembrist Vladimir Rajewski ground their links:

I'm going to drag my life as a shadow,
Away from the windy light!
In the houses of Tungus or grow brown,
Where winter reigns forever
And where nature is like a prison;
Where the first victim of brutal power,
As I dragged my days;
Weary and dying as they are,
Under the yoke of sorrow by bad luck.

Another well-known figure in Siberia and the Decembrist G.S. Batenkov, of good reviews about the Lake which we have already said, while paying attention to the severe personal and social associations, which sometimes caused his diverse hypostasis. "There will be a storm, scary wind will whistle in mountain precipices, creak on the tops of centuries-old larch, shall roar wave - and the involuntary horror embraces a stranger in the heart of a terrible desert. Then brought him to the case of past centuries, vividly destructive hordes from here will be remembered, terrible and unforgiving, like the rebellious waves of their sanctuary” (Baikal considered sacred among the Gentiles).

Gloomy autumn double these horrors, dying form of nature, the battle of the waves with the waves, hitting the ice on the ice lead in awe and remind the general destruction. Swimmer lowered the sails and looking for safe havens from the ferocious winds. Thick fog for a long time hides the sun and the beach. And on a clear day on the ground close - there is an impenetrable darkness. The roar of the waves increases the horror, the unbearable cold, making this place a true likeness of Tartarus, which does not dare come near the foot of man and for which there penetrates the eye, as the door of the grave ...

Streams and rivers, if used closer to the abyss of horror, hidden under the icy crust. One grand Angara dares to flow, and as though the time from eternity ends, but is itself, investing in the darkness of the fog, indicates its origin from the horror and death. "
These comparisons were made in a personal letter Batenkov, they are full of sincerity and frankness, and just because objectively reflect the essential aspects of the real image of the sacred sea.

We draw attention to another interesting detail. The two Russian folk songs about the Lake it whenever talking about prisoners who escaped from prison: "I have serious long exalt wore long wandered in the mountains of Akatuj, an old friend benefited to run ...".("escaped from prison a dark night in prison, he suffered for the truth ...»). And if very good read poetic lines of these songs, they deal again about the suffering, difficulties and experiences of the fugitives, vagrants, convicts and their relatives, and least of all about the beauty of Lake Baikal. "Glorious Sea - Sacred Baikal", of course, it's so deep and sublime at the same time, if we talk about nature descriptive content of this song, but yet so few positive moments are added to the overall image of the lake. On the contrary, "a nice boat" – an omul barrel" and "a glorious sail- a holey caftan" at the slightest cause argument in modern man a keen sense of danger and insecurity, the ability to quickly come to a catastrophe. Therefore, the phrase "dashing swim not far" very and very clear : where can you swim away on such a vessel?" Modern "flotations" are not the same now.

I dare say that the radical revision of the "image" of Lake Baikal in the minds of people, especially the foreign inhabitants, has not happened (of course, apart from its beauty and curative effect). The reasons for this, especially in the "savagery" of our seats for a civilized society, the severity of the climate in a relatively sparsely populated in the region, in difficulties in the way of many tourists to the lake, etc.

Let's look at two remarkable international fact occurred in 2009. First, despite the fact that in 2008 the Holy Sea has been called one of the Seven Wonders of Russia, it was not included in the list of finalists of the international competition "New seven wonders of nature." It was told in the Internet portal for-profit foundation New 7 Wonders. More by token, none of the Russian contenders - forests of the Komi Republic, the Kamchatka peninsula and the lake Ubsu- Nuur - was not included among the 28 nominees. The list includes, for example, the Amazon River, Grand Canyon, Dead Sea, Mount Kilimanjaro, the volcano Vesuvius, Angel Falls and Iguazu. Potentials competitors let the reader judge.

Secondly, quite a remarkable deterrent gimmick. Specialists of the tourist industry have compiled a list of 10 places on the Earth, in which a traveler risks to become a food. One of these dangerous areas was around the lake Baikal. Although people have long been recognized as the top of the food chain in the world still has a number of places where the animals were not informed of this and enjoy breakfast gaping tourists, it is worth it just to make one wrong move. So, going to see parameters of exotic, but extremely dangerous little animals, it is worth remembering about their gastronomic interest in the Persian ¬ not a traveler, said Turist.rbc.ru.
That is as represented in the list of Lake Baikal: “Lake Baikal – is one of the last regions where you can see an alive wild wolf, the fear inherent in the us at the genetic level. Although violent attacks on people after which whole villages were dead, left far in the past, the wolf is still a very dangerous animal to humans, and the meeting with him one on one does not exist anything good". Thus, the facts cited in the mass media, again and again push an opinion of the Russian and foreign inhabitants to think about the reality of the "sea of horrors."

But especially worth noting the action when it was born and entrenched stereotypical images of Lake Baikal, which we have mentioned above. And an important problem arises: how to change these stereotypes to make the image of the lake more attractive, "digestible" even for people who are discouraged before all the "savagery" of the Baikal sites, lack of comfort in the staying in harsh environmental conditions. Or perhaps - along with attractive image it is possible to use contradictory ways of Baikal, its, so to speak, not only "strong", but uncomfortable side as " amusements ", "bait" for potential visitors. There are also places on earth, causing a deep interest and keen desire to visit them for many people exactly because of its extreme, expectations, risks and complexity. Maybe these old, archaic elements in the image of the Holy Sea will become a driving force of new missions and representations to visit Lake Baikal? The answer, in our view, is clear; and may be contained in the phrase: "To escape from dull daily rutine, come to the sacred sea." You only need to fulfill three conditions. First, as clearly as possible to determine the non-traditional scare, risky elements in the image of Lake Baikal. Secondly, to identify possible motives of people that could attract them to the "extreme way". Thirdly, it is necessary through the media to work towards reconciliation "in order" and another "dimension" to the tourism industry.

Those who are currently working to increase the attractiveness of the lake in the minds and feelings of domestic and foreign tourists (i.e. practically on the creation of its brand), are concerned by searching of set of effective tools that most successfully accomplish this task. Based on analysis materials of relevant literature and our research, we attempt to formulate some principles that promote the right solution of this issue.

Thus, the first principle - is beyond doubt, a unique sequence. The man who goes to Lake Baikal, has high hopes that he will see here is something new, unknown to themselves, enrich their ideas, emotions, and finally, their imagination with new impressions that will enrich his inner world, and at the same time, native penates provide him an external effect: the image of man, visited the special places, endowed with nature and God does not ordinary characteristics and qualities, the very visit which is equivalent to something exceptional.

Briefly recall these peculiar, original attributes of Lake Baikal, which make it a unique phenomenon:
• the world's largest reservoir of fresh, clean and delicious water;
• wildlife, taiga arrays in the national natural parks;
• endemic flora and fauna;
• aboriginal peoples and Russian old-timers who live on its shores, etc.

The uniqueness of the Baikal region can be represented not only through the beauty of the lake and the unique, endemic representatives of its flora and fauna. No less unique sites used to be historic monuments of human development in these areas. For example, a very remarkable is Glaskowsky necropolis –is one of the most ancient burial complexes in the world, the approximate age is estimated at 7,500 years (in comparison: age of Egypt pyramids - around 4 million years old). Glaskowsky necropolis, along with other ancient monuments could be one of the most important archaeological sites in the "ring" of Pribaikalie.
Unique route for certain categories of tourists can be "heat" by using "imitation effect": for example, showing a customer that recently became interested of his trip on Lake Baikal enjoys wildly popular among tourists from different countries.

The second principle is the mystique. For any individual pleasure and prestige to know that he touched some secret, which for most of his fellow citizens because of different rank is in closed, can not simply be "siphoned" from the Internet or obtained from the mass of information sources. At the same time we must not forget that man can become a "creator of secrets, if we assume that information provided to him can be combined in inimitable versions, "smelled" the mystically, supernaturally, unbelievably. This person can be "help", using the techniques of understatement, ambiguity obtains information which allowed (even encouraged) will decide their variants of the phenomena and events, its original interpretation of the seen and (or) heard. Cleverly submitted mystery route allows play on vanity and ambition man, and the opportunity to dream about his adventures in the mysterious places reinforces the overall impression of the mission.

Hence the third principle of mythology, i.e. relationship of present knowledge with legends and traditions, persistence in the history of peoples, inhabiting the local places. Of course, it is the myth of the sea-elder and his daughters Angara, the myth about the origin of the Buryats on the shores of Baikal and many others. Herewith it is important to understand and value the ethnic coloration of myth: it is always perceived as more of the assumption, if fiction enclosed in it, connected with the legends of the people, to whom the perceiver belongs to. Myth is not only a figment of the imagination, but also the subconscious archetypes, which, somehow, alive in the depths of the psyche of every person, and skillful action "erupt" into consciousness, induce human to avow that they have a high proportion of primordial, sacramental truth.

No less in demand by many people with useful knowledge, actions, results, their design can reflect in principle of environmental. We have in mind two things, on the one hand the security of nature and with other environmental or health impact of man.
On the first point, you can say this: many foreign and domestic tourists reared on plants of the 'greens', pay very close attention to facts and events which target the protection of nature, in keeping with its unique facilities. Oil pollution in water, debris on the shores and in the lake, wounded and felled trees, careless habits of residents in relation to the sacred sea - all this in mind and just spoils the impression. Attitudes toward people who are not able to save pristine virginity and uniqness of local places, and reduces the brand of the lake: it is as if becomes a victim of ungrateful people. Very useful and interesting for the guests will know that "baikaltsy" in environmental terms can be proud of: a movement to protect the purity of Lake Baikal in late 50's, wrestling with the two tubes in the mid-80's and in 2006 north and south of the lake, culminating in both cases in victory, exactly these facts have come to recognize landmarks of Russian growing environmental movement. And they can and should work on the image and brand of the sacred sea.

The second point of the principle of environmental is directly connected with emotional and, so to speak, sensations of human health. The proverb says: "A healthy body - healthy mind”. It can be somewhat changed: “When there is a healthy nature – there are health thoughts and feelings". A man, located on the shores of Baikal should be with his whole being to feel the rush of physical and spiritual strength, and that it can and must help. First and foremost, is aid in caring for all of potential promoters of human health: air, water, plants, landscapes, etc. It is equally important to use the resources of the Baikal nature to care for the targeted improvement in the people. Here is just one example of such possibilities. Above we talked about the SPA-salons, which are grounded in well-known to the ancient people, the health properties of water: «in aqua sanitas» - the health of the water. Baikal water, no doubt, has a unique health-improving capacities and their composition but also in all of its "technical" types: shower, bath, summer and winter bathing, etc. and so-called. The water of Lake Baikal on the SPA-salons may in countless variations of his work on the brand of the sacred sea.

The fifth principle - participation in other words, inclusion of human activities, the traditional places to visit. He - one of the most difficult years in its software, as to make people internally feel about their involvement in some actions and events, their involvement in the real, exotic rituals and ceremonies, it is extremely difficult. Participation in naman campaigns with personal parting words from the "magician" and the magician, the opportunity to compete in exotic sports, fishing, other types of contests local "natives", to participate in their dances, dances, hymns - all this will certainly become one of the most precious memories of the tourist places you visit.

The principle of "participation" can relate to and quite banal, the first representation of things. For example, the tendency observed a significant number of foreign tourists to stop at some ¬ times live in wooden houses and other shelters close to traditional habitats in the visited areas. For such people have become familiar and therefore "boring" of the hotel, built under the European standard and offered in any country. They ridicule and scorn look at authorities and entrepreneurs of local areas that seek to transform the original, unique (and thus attractive) Baikal village old-timers and natives in the faceless “New Vasyuki" rock-concrete type. Naturally, life in the "new" conditions close to reality for local residents and natives must be accompanied by the provision of comfort "on demand".

Another principle is that opportunity to communicate with interesting, original people, stood out because of non-trivial views, positions, opinions in relation to nature, the outside world, other people. There will be people who share these views and enrich them with new stories and impressions, man "with a twist, sociable and companionable, can brighten any guided tour, give it a desired impression. Naturally, many tourists, especially foreign ones, associated with such hopes people from "their" tourist groups: for among them are often relatives, colleagues, neighbors, etc. But the search party of intellectuals is not excluded. Eloquent, expressive and knowledgeable guide in this regard can be fun finding the length of the tourists.

The above six principles are directly related to the preferences of natural objects as desirable and attractive. And are the natural foundation of the Baikal brand, but no less important to know some of the other principles, which, although they are associated, but are always accepted but the attention. The first place we call usually associated with the deep instinct of man, which necessarily takes place in "regulation" of his travel behavior and attitudes toward specific natural features. This is a security that people expect and want in any location, even if its purpose - extreme tourism, besides a lot of tourists have increased suspiciousness and anxiety. Safety for a tourist is primarily manifested in the everyday issues: transportation and medical support, food quality, reliability, routing, ease of living. If the client seeks, above all, protect yourself from the delay of transport, theft, bites of poisonous insects, primarily the length of Lake Baikal in the summer - tick encephalitis, possible diseases from climate change, then the advertising tours on first place you should move the guarantee of reliability route, to specify a system of security measures. Hence the high value of information that shows the individual, what measures are taken to his precious life was as small as possible threats to the way natural objects (routes, trails, ponds, etc.) are given up to the conditions "does not threaten the health and man that would be taken in case of unforeseen circumstances, of course, such information to some people, trying not to spoil their "reputation for courageous and resolute individuals, should be given strictly confidential.

It should also not forget about the natural commercialism, prudence and frugality of human. Cost effectiveness as an irresistible desire of many people to save their own funds, to a rational expenditure of their own savings, driven by considerable quantitative honest travelers. Earnings should not be spent waste is usually one way or another manifests itself in customers for any travel services.

Yet the most important principle support tourism brand of natural object it more and more acts "best service". We use the word optimal, because the requirements and needs of tourists of different nationalities and social status naturally differ and the "optimal" in this case, some ability to vary the "level" of services, although the difference in principle they should not be. Especially, as you know picky and meticulous in this regard foreign admirers of Lake Baikal. Need to be in normal circumstances, eat, relax and fix my other physiological need daily need of everyone. And the slightest deviation from "normal" service and these issues dramatically reduces the status of any trip, "killing" very good mood. Foreign tourists, most of all fans of extreme and exotic trips, say that you can live in a hut and tent, and even the plague, but here's commitment to ensure hygienic and sanitary standards of life – it is the most foremost condition of any trip. It is worth recalling that the natural brand - is primarily cleanliness, as it traditionally is inherent in nature.

There is another point, without which many of these principles of natural brand is unlikely to be effective. This is about establishing once again the best system for informing people about the natural object in the media and advertising. About this have to say because so many tourists (and especially foreign ones) constantly complain about the lack of adequate information about the lake, on specific interesting and exciting tours, the cost of accommodation and service, etc. etc. Above all, such information is not enough in foreign languages, in addition adapted to the specific interests of people from different countries, taking into account the specific features of their psychology. In this direction, now they need lots and lots of work to brand Baikal is embedded in the soul, feelings and aspirations of every citizen of the world.

See also


  1. A.D. Karnyshev "The Many Faces of Multilingual and Mysterious Baikal"© BSU Publishing House, 2011

Выходные данные материала:

Жанр материала: English | Автор(ы): Karnyshev A.D. | Источник(и): The Many Faces of Multilingual and Mysterious Baikal. Ulan-Ude. 2012 | Дата публикации оригинала (хрестоматии): 2011 | Дата последней редакции в Иркипедии: 30 марта 2015

Примечание: "Авторский коллектив" означает совокупность всех сотрудников и нештатных авторов Иркипедии, которые создавали статью и вносили в неё правки и дополнения по мере необходимости.

Материал размещен в рубриках:

Тематический указатель: Irkipedia English