Not Russian, but G. Davis - an American participant of the joint project "Baikal region in the 21 century: a model of sustainable development or continuous degradation?" said a phrase excited me: "It is difficult for Russia to pick up a more appropriate metaphor than Lake Baikal. Deep, cool, great, pure, ancient, totally unique and endangered "(124, pp. 64). This original and, in my opinion, a realistic comparison allows to draw a parallel between environmental problems of Lake Baikal and more ambitious social and environmental issues in our country. In broad terms, this can be expressed in the phrase: "To protect Lake Baikal is to defend Russia”. Examples of its objectivity are not enough in this book.
But Russia - that the diversity and diversification of languages of its peoples, each of which there is always identity of views on human society and nature. Hence, imaginative rapprochement between Russia and the lake is not only physical parameters, but also, as we seek to show in the book, their poly-ethnicity. Baikal area in terms of its population - a brilliant representative of multinational primarily cross-border and economically active regions of Russia. And this unique ethnic "mix" in a special ecological area of the world should have a good understanding the nature and prospects of their interaction with nature. It is also important to look at Lake Baikal, a unique natural phenomenon through the eyes of different people based on their resource-saving tradition. Such an approach is appropriate in relation to several factors.
First, it clarifies and expands the knowledge of the history of environmental activities of man, his attitude to the environment and stages of development of ecological consciousness, in particular national cultural variations. And very remarkable conclusion to be drawn summarizing the progress of becoming ecologically important criteria of thinking and beliefs: the seemingly primitive basic philosophical ideas and religious positions on human contact with representatives of the flora and fauna, to a large extent they comply with modern standards, assessing the nature interaction between man and nature. Baikal, according to the "evaluators" of different ethnic groups more attractive, charismatic and expressive, the more he approached to its pristine, virginity, and even the "savagery".
Second, this approach leads to an understanding of the diversity of human relations to nature, a kind of "pluralism of ecological consciousness" in the common human attitudes and criteria and it is very important to the emergence of consciousness, not only in psychological understanding, to continue in the perception of the trappings of the environment has its own nuances. Excellent illustration of the act presented in the book features color perception Baikal places: each people in their color symbolism highlights tints, dyes, coloring, highlighting the most specific national characteristics and identity of people. In addition, each people individually identify therapeutic, curative effects of certain colors and attributes of the sacred sea.
Third, when analyzing multi-faceted and multi-effect nature of the people can always find the facts, when the details and nuances of the images and associations, representatives of other ethnic groups, for example, about the virtues of the taiga, rivers, lakes and shores of Lake Baikal is interpreted, in something borrowed members of the my "ethnic community. The positive effect of such borrowing may be obvious: not only the vision of the peculiar hues of surrounding natural phenomena, but also enrich their own inner world of new, original impressions and images of his more colorful and attractive colors unexpected associations. Diversity of images of outer and inner worlds of other peoples is "mine", as well as the originality of my diverse experiences gets embodied in the psyche of the "other" - that is the most desired dynamics of the interaction of diverse natural world and all walks of the world's people. Especially, if the integration of thoughts, images and ideas goes along with cooperation on specific matters relating and Ecology and Nature Protection of Lake Baikal. On the multiplicity of perspectives of activity in this direction, we have already spoken.
Completing the list of pluses in the ethno-psychological approach to the review and analysis of issues surrounding the world of nature and the lake, we emphasize that nationally oriented view can not teach tolerance, tolerance of differences ethnically related personal items, not only to nature but to the whole originality of the human. "I can not see the surrounding natural and social world in exactly the same as it sees the" other. " But I can and must accept and understand any differences in perception and interpretation of what he saw as inevitable, natural, and even mandatory, that's the point formed by the very nature of human tolerance. This alteration becomes a reference point, the point of maximum positive, since the existing varieties of heterogeneity, diversity of views makes it possible to build the unity of the people. From this very important fact: the attitude towards nature can be a unifying force (and this process we have already seen in civilized countries as an example of "green"), national reconciliation, a factor that removes the barriers of misunderstanding between people.
Lake Baikal and in the geographical (the center of the Asian continent) and environmental (there were still plenty of virgin expanses) and economically (value of fresh water and the prospects of eco-tourism) plans can become a place of natural and cultural heritage, which is triggered and the union people, and to Russia's prestige and its multinational people.
It can be (and for this it is necessary today to make all) of the model territory, an experimental platform, the natural ground on which will work out the principles of ecological economics and technology, which creates a house in which to ensure harmonious unity of man and nature.
We dare not finish the book social and ethnic, and personal reflections, namely the "opus", which I have already spent in adulthood Baikal, mindful of its role and importance in his life. He has no claims on the poetic gift, the grace of rhyme, without much hope to recognition of creative discoveries. Opus elementary reflects what I felt and feel for life. As it is, perhaps, going through my loved ones, friends and compatriots, all those who have left a deep impression Baikal in the shower.
Every time we are happy, when we meet
We know that you are a destiny's gift.
The home of the parents is on your shore
And our first cry joined the powerful roar.
From childhood up we haven’t been rocked by nannies,
But we have been cared by seagulls.
In the cradle for us combative Sarma – the queen,
Was singing her songs, ruling the wind.
You, old man, cherished us by the surges
Making fun of us by your energy .
To test our anger and fright by a turbulent chute
Hurried the *Barguzin and **Kultuk.
For our effort and work the **Proval's shoal
Gave us fish – he was by element born.
The mountains of Lake Baikal weren't compassionate;
They put us to the tests of strength and lustihood.
The guys went along the clouds of summits
Where cedars in three girth and berry carpets.
We are mature but by our hearts, still, as before,
The vastitude of Lake Baikal is wished for.
In faraway for happiness will be regarded
To hear your roar at our last moment,
To join the rest who in the soul
With you long ago went to a better world,
Remaining forever a roaring or birds,
A stone, but still Lake Baikal's bits…
** A bay at Lake Baikal.
*** A bay at Lake Baikal
A.D. Karnyshev "The Many Faces of Multilingual and Mysterious Baikal"© BSU Publishing House, 2011
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